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CRJ Real World Tips/Techniques

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vor 9 Stunden , Tim.S sagte:

How do you generally manage a descent. Speeds, thrust settings, autopilot modes etc.

 

....

It seemed to descend really rapidly, with an agressive nose down attitude, yet was still bleeding off speed and couldnt maintain what was set on the mcp. Speed brakes were stowed. 

 

A little hint. The following is found in the tutorial on your HDD :-) Its even better if you do it with the tutorial flight Aerosoft gave you. o hard feelings pls.

I think 1.5 DIN a4 pages handle this very subject in the tutorial. Manage the descent.
 

Zitieren

As soon as the CRJ is established in cruise flight you already need to prepare the descent into Monterey. Just a quick note on estimating the top of descent (the point along your route when you actually want to start the descent). Currently there are two options available: check the Quick Reference Handbook, QRH, for the descent chart and derive the needed distance in reference to your current gross-weight and cruise altitude. In case you don’t have the QRH handy, there is a very basic rule of thumb: remove the last three digits of your current altitude (expressed in thousands of feet), multiply the resulting value by three and there is the distance the aircraft covers during descent. Here is an example: cruising altitude is 30,000 feet. Step one, remove last three digits 30,000 → 30. Step 2: multiply by three: 30 x 3 = 90 miles. During descent please follow the standard profile: M0.74 / 290 kts / 250 kts. Start your descent in SPD mode with M0.74 until you pass 290 kts then switch to 290 kts (SPD mode stays active) and after passing 10,000ft descend with 250 kts. The autopilot will adjust the descent rate automatically – in case you need to adjust use the throttle or even spoiler. You’ll start the descent when you are 25 miles out ROBIE waypoint. We aim to reach Salinas SNS VOR (117.30 MHz) at 8,200ft altitude with 190 kts and flaps 8. Reset the altitude to 10,000ft (even though we will descend to 8,200, setting the altitude to 10,000ft prevents you from exceeding 250 knots below 10,000 ft), set the IAS selector to 290 knots and slowly pull back the throttles to approximately 65% N1. Be careful with flights at higher altitudes and start descending in Mach mode (0.74) first. Now monitor the descent rate and adjust with the throttle – by applying thrust you reduce your descent rate and by reducing thrust you increase your descent rate. The CRJ’s wing area isn’t that big compared to other aircraft so expect the CRJ to descend fast when applying little thrust. When you are descending through 25,000ft tune COM1 to 119,250 MHz to check Monterey’s ATIS. In case you are using the predefined weather this step is not that important but otherwise you need some information provided by the ATIS to determine your landing runway and the local atmospheric pressure to adjust your altimeter when you are descending through transition altitude (18,000ft in the US). Always monitor your altitude and the remaining distance to adjust your thrust setting and hence the descent rate. When you are descending through 20.000ft reduce thrust to approx. 50% N1. As soon as the CRJ is established in descent, proceed with the descent checklist. This checklist needs to be completed before descending through 18,000ft.

As soon as you are approaching 10,000ft the autopilot will switch to altitude capture mode (indicated by flashing ALTS on the PFD). Now you can safely readjust the altitude as the altitude to be captured is already saved in the autopilot and any adjustments to the altitude selector are ignored. Please dial in 8,200ft, readjust the speed setting to 250 knots and reduce thrust to idle (the FADEC will automatically regulate N1 so that a minimum N1 is maintained and oil pressure keeps stable). As soon as the CRJ is about to pass through 250 knots, activate the speed mode again and proceed descending to 8,200ft. Prepare for the approach and landing and review the approach charts and following description on the sequence of events. The following graphic shows the usual sequence of events during an ILS approach. Please take your time (and pause the flight simulator) to review the graphic and read the following explanations, as well as taking your time to go through the checklists at each segment. In case you feel more confident handling the CRJ you may of course not make use of the pause function – we’d recommend it for the first flight though.

As mentioned earlier, we aim to pass Salinas SNS VOR at 8,200ft with 190 knots and flaps 8. So please aim to reach 8,200ft approx. 5-10 miles before reaching Salinas SNS VOR. As soon as the CRJ captured altitude do not touch the throttles and let the aircraft slow down. When passing 210 knots extend the flaps to 1 and let the aircraft slow down further. When the CRJ approaches 190 knots extend flaps to 8 and increase thrust to approx. 70% N1 to maintain 190 knots. After passing Salinas SNS VOR and when established on your way to SHOEY waypoint, please dial in 2,500ft. Then activate SPD mode again and reduce throttle to idle thrust to descend with 190 kts. On your way you will pass north of KMRY – so take a look out your left window to familiarize with the airport and surrounding. The CRJ should capture 2,500ft before reaching SHOEY waypoint (approximately over the coast). Let it slow down to 170 knots and extend the flaps to 20. As the turn to intercept the ILS will be very sharp please press the HDG mode button to synchronize the heading bug with the current heading (approx. 267°). Furthermore, dial in an altitude of 1,700ft and make sure the bearing pointers are set to I-MRY ILS and MR NDB. Roughly 1,5 miles before reaching SHOEY waypoint select heading 110° - the CRJ Is going into a steep left turn so monitor the speed closely and apply thrust of necessary to prevent a stall. As soon as the CRJ is established after the turn, select VS (vertical speed) mode and use the thumb dial to dial in a sink rate of 1,000 feet per minute (fpm – indicated as “-1,000”) and reduce thrust to idle. As the CRJ captures 1,700ft extend the flaps to 30 and the gear. Please establish a speed of 150 kts, arm the APP (approach) mode and go through the Before Landing Checklist.


I understand the topic is to ask realworld Pilot, as he offered, about the ways they do. But it sounds more you ask about the basic so maybe this helps you more than asking the same the Tut says in various questions :-).

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6 minutes ago, Senchay said:

 

A little hint. The following is found in the tutorial on your HDD :-) Its even better if you do it with the tutorial flight Aerosoft gave you. o hard feelings pls.

I think 1.5 DIN a4 pages handle this very subject in the tutorial. Manage the descent.
 


I understand the topic is to ask realworld Pilot, as he offered, about the ways they do. But it sounds more you ask about the basic so maybe this helps you more than asking the same the Tut says in various questions :-).

 

The vertical mode for the autopilot described there is not very commonly used in real life, so I would say the initial question was a valid one. Descending in V/S using some basic descent planning rules of thumb is much more reliable and can lead to some very satisfying idle-descents until final ;).

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In regards to the panel state issue, you can save a user defined state with the FMS, but it can't be selected as a default state nor can it be selected via Dave.

 

It would be great if we could select a user state as default-- that way we could create whatever long turn/ short turn variation we want. 

 

Don

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13 hours ago, Propane said:

 

It's fairly smooth honestly, I have never seen it do anything crazy even going from V2+12 to 290kts. The 'crazy' stuff could be something in DES mode, if you have set a speed that is too low to reach in your current configuration (so basically, where a B737 or so would give you the message DRAG REQUIRED) the CRJ will enter a pitch hold submode. Some pilots may not be aware of this if they rarely use it.

 

Only up to 290 in the climb? Never done a CDO I see :lol:

 

Disclaimer: 900 only here. 

 

I would add that while SPD mode can be smooth, it's seems to work better at lower speeds. I generally use it up to 250kts, then will use VS afterwards. 

 

Some random numbers I'll throw out there. When climbing through 10,000 and wanting to accelerate to 290, put the airplane into VS and dial in 1000FPM. If you're light, once you reach 290, 16-1700FPM should hold it. If you're heavy, 1500FPM might work. By the time you need to transition to .74 Mach, you'll probably be 1000FPM or less. Add 300FPM to whatever your climb rate was holding 290kts and it should hold .74. Ballpark numbers all around there and you'll need to monitor them. Obviously affected by ISA too. 

 

Fun tidbit worth adding, the CRJ wing likes to go fast. You'll climb far quicker doing 290kts than 250. Somedays 320kts/.77mach seems like it gets you altitude even quicker also. 

 

While descending, remember to the 11 at 11 rule. Basically hit 11,000ft at idle power, 290kts, at 1100FPM, and you'll be 250kts at 10,000 nearly every time. 

 

We never use SPD mode above 10,000. Idle thrust Mach .77 descent out of FL340 is quite violent. We just use VS and the DIR INTC page of the FMS for our descents. If people are curious I'll write up exactly how we do that. It's kind of a weird guess and check combo done in unison with the snowflake. Descend via arrivals are fun :rolleyes:

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1 hour ago, Brendan154 said:

 

Only up to 290 in the climb? Never done a CDO I see :lol:

 

 

EASA FTL here, and a pretty decent crewplanning department ;) . Very few overnights, so home nearly every night and shortest overnight rest 10 hours. Doing 280/.77 auto switchover is fast enough for me most of the time :D. Also, arrivals and departures are a bit different here then in the US as far as I know, so different flying styles. I come from an all manual everything turboprop so I don't bother too much with the FMS advisory VNAV, I have my own VNAV baked in and it's usually more flexible and takes shortcuts and speed reductions into account :P .

 

Edit: Speaking about those speeds, if you want to skip at least one button push (ask any pilot, workload management is important :P )... Just set 280KIAS after climbing through 10.000 and forget about it. At switchover point of FL316/31.600ft that will translate into ~M.77 which will let you climb up to FL410 if weight and atmospheric conditions allow. 

 

Some other things, you can use the fix page as reminders. For example set your destination airport or a beacon near it in the fix page, with a distance to cross of 30nm and you have a good aiming point to be at speed 250KIAS and 10.000ft/FL100. Same can be done for a visual approach aiming point, just make it 4nm and 1200ft AGL. 

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13 minutes ago, Propane said:

 

EASA FTL here, and a pretty decent crewplanning department ;) . Very few overnights, so home nearly every night and shortest overnight rest 10 hours. Doing 280/.77 auto switchover is fast enough for me most of the time :D. Also, arrivals and departures are a bit different here then in the US as far as I know, so different flying styles. I come from an all manual everything turboprop so I don't bother too much with the FMS advisory VNAV, I have my own VNAV baked in and it's usually more flexible and takes shortcuts and speed reductions into account :P .

 

When you're on duty all night and are getting 4 hours of sleep at the hotel, those extra 30 knots do wonders for morale. 

 

Until NY approach turns you 30° degrees off course and slows you to 250 at FL220 for spacing. 

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vor 2 Stunden , Brendan154 sagte:

We just use VS and the DIR INTC page of the FMS for our descents. If people are curious I'll write up exactly how we do that. 

 

I certainly am !!

 

Great thread and info.

 

Mike

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1 hour ago, Propane said:

Edit: Speaking about those speeds, if you want to skip at least one button push (ask any pilot, workload management is important :P )... Just set 280KIAS after climbing through 10.000 and forget about it. At switchover point of FL316/31.600ft that will translate into ~M.77 which will let you climb up to FL410 if weight and atmospheric conditions allow. 

 

But... but... then my speed bug isn't perfectly synchronized to M.77.

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18 minutes ago, Mikealpha said:

 

I certainly am !!

 

Great thread and info.

 

Mike

 

General disclaimer, I am going to be talking about how we do a "descend via" arrival in the United States. This is an arrival with a sequence of waypoints often with airspeed and altitude restrictions. The complicated part of this is that they are not all just "Cross FIX at ALT", rather they are "Cross FIX between ALT1 and ALT2, at 290kts". 

 

So how do we do that in the CRJ? Well, it is a bit more complicated than a Boeing or Airbus product. The CRJ series technically doesn't have VNAV (I am lying, but I will qualify that in a second though). We have advisory VNAV which is a very basic descent profile that the FMS generates based on entered crossing restrictions. I want to explain a bit of how it does this. To illustrate, lets go look at an arrival. 

 

http://155.178.201.160/d-tpp/1708/00253VANZE.PDF

This is the VANZE1 RNAV arrival into Memphis, TN.

 

Imagine you are the FMS. You have a desired descent angle which is 3.0 degrees. This is of course editable in the VNAV page 3/3 of the FMS. 3.0 works fairly well though and unless there is a massive tailwind will allow you to descend at near idle thrust maintaining profiled speeds. The way that the FMS builds the descent path goes as follows. Start at the end of the arrival with the first hard altitude (which is to say a restriction that isn't "at or above/below/between). On the VANZE arrival, that is HEXIN. Now, the FMS will draw backwards up the arrival a path of 3.0 degrees. At each waypoint it logic checks to see if you meet whatever restriction is entered in the LEGS page (it is important to note, before you fly any arrival like this you must manually verify each altitude at each fix is correct by cross referencing the chart). Now, if it fails this logic check and the 3.0 degree angle doesn't meet the proceeding restriction, then it will adjust the angle such that it does. So the result is you may see any angle of 2.8 or 3.2 on the LEGS page between waypoints to signify you will need an adjusted descent rate for that section of the arrival. The physical manifestation of all this is the white snowflake which appears on the PFD where the glideslope appears for the ILS. Following the snowflake will keep you within all restrictions of the arrival. 

 

If you are still with me, good job. That isn't the hardest part though.

 

We need to now mention a few things about our friend, the snowflake. 

1. It doesn't build deceleration stages like the 737 or A320. All it is concerned about it altitudes. So if the arrival requires you to decelerate to, say, 210KTS, then you must plan that into your descent on your own. 

2. It doesn't account for your TAS changing as you descend. Hence, while one VS may have been working at a higher altitude, you will need a lower one as the descent progresses. Remember, we are attaching a VS to an angle. We are still doing a 3.0 degree descent, but much like the VS of a CRJ on a 3.0 ILS will be greater than that of a C172 doing the same approach because of the speed difference, the higher true airspeed for a given indicated airspeed at altitude will require a greater VS. 

 

*aerodynamics side note (skip if you want): a swept wing high altitude jet like the CRJ makes a lot of drag at higher altitudes going fast (drag = speed^2), so the higher vertical speed required for a 3.0 degree descent out of FL340 actually compliments this aerodynamic principal quite well. In my experience, the CRJ can easily do 3000FPM out of the high flight levels without accelerating, but below 20,000 often times it is hard to descend at more than 2,000FPM.

 

3. You cannot couple the autopilot to our friend the snowflake. The snowflake is a function of an angle. No where can we select a 3.0 flight path angle on FCP. 10/10 engineering. Even worse, the CRJ doesn't share with you what VS its currently using to compute the snowflakes rate of descent. I have to imagine this number totally exists somewhere within the Rockwell Collins avionics, but they decided to not tell us. So this can lead to you just chasing it with the VS wheel in hopes you are ballparking it correctly. There is however, a better way.

 

*side note number 2: there are a few CRJs flying that actually have a VNAV button on the FCP. Guess what it does. It couples the snowflake to the autopilot. They're lucky. None of my companies airplanes have this button though, and I don't think that the AS CRJ7/9 has it either. So as near as I can tell, it doesn't exist.

 

If you've been reading this up till now, I need to issue an apology. Everything we just talked about it kind of irrelevant because we don't actually use the snowflake in day to day operations. At least, most of us don't. I would consider it secondary descent profile information. Enough theory then, how do we actually do this?

 

Good old airmenship and the DIR INTC page. The DIR INTC page is extremely useful for a singular reason. It will tell you the VS required to cross FIX at ALT, based on what you put on the LEGS page. A simple example to start, shall we.

 

http://155.178.201.160/d-tpp/1708/00264SKETR.PDF

Let's say ATC instructs us to cross SHONN at 11,000ft. We will enter that restriction into the LEGS page (because this is an EXPECT altitude, it will not have loaded when we load the arrival). Now, execute the change and switch over to the DIR INTC page. You will see the SHONN, an arrow pointing down, and a vertical speed. 11,000 should be in small font right above the VS. That is the VS required to cross SHONN at 11,000 based on your current altitude. There will also be your current angle from present position directly to SHONN. To cross SHONN at 11,000, dial in 11,000 into the FCP, wait for the angle to read 3.0 (or less, I like to descend a 2.5 sometimes just to make the ride a bit smoother and give me more options with a bit of power in on the descent), and start descending at the VS shown on the SHONN line of the DIR INTC page. I should note, if you do what I do and start down at an angle <3.0, you will never see the snowflake because you have never intercepted the 3.0 degree path created by the FMS which the snowflake obviously represents. 

 

Same situation, same arrival, same crossing restriction at SHONN, but now ATC asks you to cross SHONN at 250kts. Now you must slow down and go down. This is not one of the strong suits of the CRJ. In level flight, the thing will decelerate quite rapidly. It won't while descending though and in all honesty, the flight spoilers aren't too stellar slowing the bird down. Remember how I said that the snowflake doesn't build in deceleration legs, thats on you, the pilot! The only difference in our descent planning we will need to make is that we are going to need a level segment in order to decelerate. As we approach a 3.0 degree descent towards SHONN using the DIR INTC page, start down a bit early. Maybe at 2.8, however, add approximately 100 or 200FPM to the required rate of descent. This will ensure that we get to 11,000 a bit before SHONN and have enough time to decelerate to 250kts.

 

The reason I wanted us to go through that example is so that we can now go to a more complicated one. Lets go back to the VANZE arrival into MEM that I linked to earlier, back at the top of this increasingly long essay.

 

Pretend we are cleared for this arrival and we are starting it at the TALLO transition, landing South (18L/C/R). The restrictions are all in the LEGS page and ATC clears us to descend via the arrival. Great. The first crossing restriction is FASON at or above FL240. That is pretty easy. The next one is CRAMM at or below FL230, and VANZE has the same restriction. So what should we do? 

 

The honest answer is make it up as you go. You need a mental picture of what the entire arrival looks like in terms of vertical profile, but in reality you can't keep track of every set of restrictions in your head. There are way too many! So just worry about the next four, or so. 

 

FASON FL240A

dist 37

CRAMM FL230B

dist 10

VANZE FL230B

dist 9

MASHH 16000/14000

 

Hypothetically, we cross both CRAMM and VANZE at FL230, are we going to be able to go from VANZE to MASHH and descend to 16,000ft to make the top of the gate? Probably not. Here it what I would do. Go look at your DIR INTC page. Look at the VS required for each waypoint. I am not sure exactly which altitude it will show for MASHH on the DIR INTC page, but it'll either be 16 or 14,000. It will sometimes change based on the arrival and profile and that is wayyy beyond what we are talking about here today. We have done enough pseudo coding of the airplane's avionics today. We need to now pick a vertical speed that will hit all the restrictions. Ideally you want something less than the VS to cross FASON, and greater than the VS to cross CRAMM. This will ensure you can cross FASON above 240, and CRAMM below 230. More than likely, that VS required to cross MASHH at 16,000. So that is probably the one you want to use. Wait until you are 3.0 degrees from MASHH and start down at that VS, assuming that VS is less than the VS for FASON and greater than that for CRAMM. If it doesn't meet those requirements, then you'll need to adjust it until it does. 

 

Lets say we cross FASON above 240 successfully. We can now start thinking about the waypoint after MASHH. 

 

CRAMM FL230B

dist 10

VANZE FL230B

dist 9

MASHH 16000/14000

dist 22 (skip w/ turn at HLI, no crossing restriction there)

LARUE 12000/10000

 

Run the same algorithm in your head. You need to select a VS that will comply with all of the above. Rinse, repeat, until you hit the bottom of the arrival. And make sure you are complying with speed restrictions too. If that example was a little hard to follow I understand.

 

The summary to all this: if you are flying an arrival with multiple crossing restrictions to hit, use the DIR INTC and your brain to select a descent rate that will comply with as much restrictions as you can. Look forward and ensure to not box yourself in a corner where you have to do an impossible rate of descent to make a restriction. Constantly be monitoring and adjusting. 

 

The snowflake is a good piece of supplementary information and if you're doing the above procedure correctly, you'll end up following it all the way down usually. It is important to understand the limitation of the system, such as no accounting for speed restrictions. For this, there is no substitute for human interaction and mental processing during these procedures. There is no simple way either, rather just practicing and engaging your brain.

 

This is a huge pain. The CRJ avionics suite was built in the early 90s, well before any of these complicated RNAV procedures. We are using 25 year old tools to solve a modern day problem. This is genuinely the hardest thing to do in the CRJ and will make you feel like you've done some mental gymnastics. And once you get good at it, its very satisfying. Jumping back into the NGX or Airbus after this will make life seem pathetically easy.

 

If any of that needs clarification, I will be happy to help.

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I have already completed several flights between ASE DEN and real weather. In KDEN is planned an RNAV Y Approach Rwy 35L  with several descend sections. Since the TOD does not appear or is too late, ich must descend the first leg with VS and green circle control. After passing TOD (do not know what this is then based), the snowflake shows obviously not really plausible values.

So i fly almost completely with VS and orientation on the green circle.

Is certainly not perfect, also makes a lot of work, but i've still landed them safely.

 

Is this way as an alternative to a real possibility? An further question, in published papers i can see, that at beginn of final approach the airplane is full configurated for an NPA. In DEN i would have to full configurated over CELBI, means Vapp, landing flaps.?!

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On 8/5/2017 at 6:25 AM, Astro_Liam said:

i was wondering the same. I then remembered I saw an episode of Air Crash/Mayday where one crash was caused by a reverser being deployed mid flight. Maybe it has something to do with that

You got it. To protect against inadvertent reverser deployments. And they cannot be inadvertently be deployed when they aren't armed. :)

So as soon as they're not needed, (i.e. airborne, after takeoff), they are disarmed. And then re armed again, during the landing checklist. 

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3 hours ago, Brendan154 said:

If any of that needs clarification, I will be happy to help.

 

Brendan,

 

I don't post much, but that has to be one of the most informative posts I've read in quite a long time.  So I felt it necessary to chime in and give a big thank you for taking the time to write it out.

 

Thanks,

Rob

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vor 20 Stunden , Brendan154 sagte:

If any of that needs clarification, I will be happy to help.

 

big thanks for the very detailed info and explanation.  Learning such things is what flight simulation is all about for me. Not just pressing VNAV buttons in a Boebus and watch :)

 

Mike

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Great thread! Could you describe the "flows" from before entering the active runway until after passing 10 000?

Jonas

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Before line up:

 

Lights and Strobes on

Crossflow to Manual and no active crossflow going on

Switch continous ignition and anti-ice on as required

Advise cabin crew (quick chime with the seatbelt sign for example)

Check the EICAS to make sure TO CONFIG OK message is displayed and all messages are normal or related to a known, allowed issue

 

TO:

 

Set flight director to TO / TO mode

Advance thrust levers to about vertical position to make sure both engines are stabilized (prevent asymmetric thrust)

Set TO thrust (TOGA detent)

Rotate at Vr with approx. 3 degrees per second up to 10 degrees then follow FD

Positive climb, gear up, SPD mode and NAV mode (or other modes if you so prefer)

Earliest at 600' AGL switch on autopilot

 

When ready, set CLB thrust, clean up the aircraft according to schedule. Set speed 210 while cleaning up. 

After cleaning up, speed 250 KIAS or higher if ATC approves (fairly common in EU).

When passing transition altitude set standard and use it as a trigger for the climb check (again, mostly EU, we have varying transition altitudes and much lower than in the US). 

Passing 10.000/FL100 accelerate to 290 KIAS, lights off, seatbelt sign auto etc. Sit back, relax, get crewmeal and coffee.

 

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1 hour ago, Propane said:

 

Set flight director to TO / TO mode

 

 

 

Thanks!

Perhaps I've lost my reading skills during vacation, but I can't figure out how to set TO/TO on the FD. Also curious on how to enable ET on the clocks, is it just a single click on ET?

 

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1 hour ago, JowlStc said:

 

Thanks!

Perhaps I've lost my reading skills during vacation, but I can't figure out how to set TO/TO on the FD. Also curious on how to enable ET on the clocks, is it just a single click on ET?

 

TO.thumb.jpg.70e34de17c080f213a014d21c9339979.jpg

 

The TOGA button is location on the throttle knobs. Also, regarding the functions of the Chronometer, Refer to page 69 in Pt. 2 of the AOM should provide the answers you seek.

 

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1 hour ago, Propane said:  

Set flight director to TO / TO mode

 

 

 

Thanks!

Perhaps I've lost my reading skills during vacation, but I can't figure out how to set TO/TO on the FD. Also curious on how to enable ET on the clocks, is it just a single click on ET?

 

 

For the ET, click on the ET button once. It will go into a standby mode and start calculating elapsed time on takeoff when the main wheels leave the ground.

 

 

Sent from my iPad using Tapatalk

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11 minutes ago, Chris Smith said:

This is an awesome thread! What sorts of cruise machs do you use in the real world? 

 

.77 Mach for normal flights. 

 

.80 sometimes into certain stations.

 

.82 if we have spare gas/running really late/go home day. 

 

300kts indicated if you never make it to Mach numbers. 

 

Just for fun:

Climb: 250/290/.74

Highspeed Climb: 250/320/.77

Descent: .77 (or cruise mach)/290

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1 minute ago, Brendan154 said:

 

.80 sometimes into certain stations.

 

.82 if we have spare gas/running really late/go home day. 

 

 

  • What certain stations are those? LOL 
  • And for your second point, the .82 is really when you are running late right? When is spare gas a problem?! LOL

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Definitely some informative posts on managing descents and approaches, thanks CRJisBAE and Brendan154!

 

The concern about thrust inadvertent thrust reverser deployment sorta makes sense, though it seems like other aircraft use weight on wheels sensors for that safety check?

 

Some other things that have come to mind...

 

- Do you commonly use flex / derated thrust on takeoff?  If so, I assume those numbers are generated for you from dispatch or an EFB application (not like a rule of thumb or something)?

- Are ground power / air used often?  Or might you just stay on APU for a short turn / at an out station?

- Other than system failures, is there any reason that manual bleed management would be used?

- what do typical CoG numbers look like?

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On 8/5/2017 at 1:39 PM, CRJisBAE said:

There are times where I don't feel like riding the V/S knob the whole way down the descent so instead I'll just slow to the assigned speed and use SPEED mode to come down. There are no specific thrust settings I use when I do this. If I want a shallow descent, I pull them back a little. The more steep of a descent I want, the more I pull the thrust levers back. As with any descent in the CRJ, make sure you get that power back in once you level off!)

 

A little trick you can do for those times where ATC leaves you way high and dry and you need to get down quickly. 320-330kts (250kts below 10), SPEED mode, thrust idle, speedbrakes full out, then hold on tight (lol). (Again...make sure you stow the speedbrakes and get the power back in on the level off! Otherwise you will experience CRJ fun times!)

 

I don't know whether to be happy or concerned that my quick duct-tape patch fix way of descending the CRJ is how they do it IRL. I thought it would have a bit more.., finesse and planning lol.

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2 hours ago, imemyself said:

Definitely some informative posts on managing descents and approaches, thanks CRJisBAE and Brendan154!

 

The concern about thrust inadvertent thrust reverser deployment sorta makes sense, though it seems like other aircraft use weight on wheels sensors for that safety check?

 

Some other things that have come to mind...

 

- Do you commonly use flex / derated thrust on takeoff?  If so, I assume those numbers are generated for you from dispatch or an EFB application (not like a rule of thumb or something)?

- Are ground power / air used often?  Or might you just stay on APU for a short turn / at an out station?

- Other than system failures, is there any reason that manual bleed management would be used?

- what do typical CoG numbers look like?

 

In order here...

 

Yes, we Flex basically all the time. We won't flex if:

Anti Skip Inop

Anti Ice Required for T/O

Contamined Runway

Downdrafts/Windshear

 

We will turn off the APU if they connect ground power on a turn. Very rarely will we see ground air on a turn. If we think we need the APU to keep the cabin at a reasonable temp, it stays on. The APU is

a single stage centrifugal compressor; it's much more simple and durable than the turbines in the engines and can be

started and stopped with greater frequency without the worry of damage. In fact, running the APU for long periods of time is actually more damaging than periodic shut down and restarts. 

 

[random bonus aside]

APU startup and shutdown procedure:

 

Press PWR FUEL, verify DIGS (on ED2):

DOOR open (APU door open)

IN BITE (APU IN BITE status message)

GAUGES (RPM and EGT indications appear)

SOV (APU SOV OPEN status message appears)

One APU IN BITE status message disappears, press the START STOP switch. 

At 99% RPM + 2 seconds, the APU aid available. 

 

If you start it in the air, the APU door wont open until you press the START STOP switch. This is normal to prevent windmilling at a critical RPM where it's not rotating quickly enough to adequately self lubricate. 

 

Shutdown, start by pressing the START STOP switch. 

Once the RPM winds down, wait till the APU door closes on ED2, then press the PWR FUEL switch. 

[/random bonus aside]

 

Only time in normal ops that I've had to put the bleeds in Manual mode is taxiing in single engine, then starting the APU. The Air Cond System Controller (ACSC) gets confused if you shut down an engine before the APU is running and won't automatically switch the packs to the APU. The order it's expecting is:

engines start

APU off

APU on

engines off

any disruption there and it gets confused. If you're taxiing in and decide to go single engine before starting the APU (please don't if it's summer), the ACSC won't automatically switch the packs to the APU when you start it. The rememdy is to go to Manual Mode, open the ISOL valve, rotate to APU on the source knob, wait for them to transfer, then put them back to BOTH ENG (I think? It's the 12 o'clock position) and ISOL closed, then mode switch to AUTO. This'll reset the system controller and prioritize the bleeds correctly. 

 

For CoG I've seen everything from 16.0 to 24.5 %Mac. On average, maybe 18.0? Just kinda guessing. Sorry I don't have a better answer there. 

 

Hope that answers your questions!

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