I am also facing this thing for quite a long but after doing proper research I get to know all the things related to MCDU and checklist problem, I will also provide the link from where I get all these solutions -
In more than 25 years of Airbus A320 Family aircraft operation, there have been not more than a handful of events involving undetected fuel quantity issues.
The reasons for these fuel quantity issues vary from one event to another. Early detection and management of the issue remains key to successfully deal with such events.
During cruise of an A320 Family aircraft, the crew observed 3 occurrences of the ECAM warning L TK PUMP 1 + 2 LO PR. In line with this warning, they noticed a more rapid fuel level decrease in the left fuel tank compared to the right one. Following the applicable FCOM procedure, they opened the fuel cross feed valve, only to close it soon after as fuel quantity was abnormally decreasing. Minutes later, engine 1 shut down by itself and the ECAM warning ENG 1 FAIL triggered.
The crew managed to land the aircraft uneventfully with engine 2 still running, and passengers disembarked safely. The remaining fuel quantity upon landing turned out to be 840 kg in the right fuel tank, and no fuel in the left tank.
Investigation into this event highlighted that maintenance was done on the fuel tanks prior to the event flight, and both engines 1 and 2 fuel pump filters had been replaced. After the event flight, engine 1 HP fuel pump filter cover was found not properly fitted, with 4 threaded inserts out of 6 being reported unserviceable, thus allowing the cover to partially open. It was estimated that approximately 4 to 5 tons of fuel had leaked.
In another event, the Fuel Quantity Indication (FQI) system had been showing discrepancies for a period of time. Given the intermittent nature of the fault, entries in the aircraft logbook were investigated but without findings by maintenance despite carrying out precautionary maintenance. On two occasions, different crews failed to identify or properly record the FOB discrepancy during pre-departure or post-flight fuel checks.
For the event flight, the aircraft departed with an indicated FOB of approximately 5000kg (fuel at arrival from previous leg was approx. 3800kg and fuel uplift was 1200kg). The flight crew performed the initial fuel checks with reference to the fuel logs of the preceding flight. The calculated values remained consistent.
In flight, transient fuel quantity fluctuations were experienced and eventually the ECAM alert FUEL L (R) WING TK LO LVL triggered. It was processed as per SOP by the crew who checked the SD page as being nominal. The alert was thus considered spurious. The flight continued with repeated fuel checks at short intervals; however during the approach, engine 1 flamed out. Landing was performed on engine 2 safely.
After the flight, the left wing tank was confirmed empty with the FQI over reading by 1 ton.
The analysis of the event indicated that preceding fuel log entries did not allow the crew to identify a significant discrepancy of about 800 kg prior to departure.
On the third flight of the day on an A320 Family aircraft, while the aircraft was approaching its destination, a LO LVL alert triggered on one side. The crew considered it spurious, as likely resulting from fuel movement in the tank. Shortly after this first alert, a new LO LVL alert triggered on the other side. The crew continued the flight and eventually landed uneventfully. The remaining fuel quantity upon landing turned out to be approximately 900 kg.
During the first flight of the day, the flight crew calculated a ~500 kg discrepancy at arrival. Nothing was mentioned in relation to fuel in the log book.
During the second flight of the day, the discrepancy calculated by the crew at arrival was almost 3000 kg. The First Officer noticed that it was not what he had expected but considered that they had benefited from a number of favorable factors such as a direct ATC routing, and they eventually had arrived 20 to 25 minutes earlier than scheduled. In addition, they sometimes ferry fuel according to the company policy. As a consequence, nothing unusual was mentioned in the log book.
Before the third flight - which was the event flight - the refueler only added little fuel since there was still a fuel over read. Yet, the flight crew departed with a significantly overestimated fuel quantity that ultimately led to the unanticipated LO LVL alerts on both sides. According to the investigation, the issue/over-read was due to an intermittent FQI Computer (FQIC) failure. The maintenance record of this FQIC highlighted numerous returns to the shop in the months preceding the event.
HOW MUCH FUEL IS AVAILABLE ONBOARD?
Considering the consequences of running out of fuel in flight, knowing how much fuel is available on board during the flight is clearly essential to safety. What information can be used to determine the amount of fuel on board? How is this information established? Do the various pieces of information relate to one another? Are they independent? Let’s explore the various types of onboard fuel information that are available to the flight crew. Where does this information originate and how are fuel levels established on Airbus A320 Family aircraft?
FQI or Fuel Quantity Indication: a source based on measures performed inside fuel tanks
The FQI system calculates the fuel quantity based on values taken from probes in the tanks. The probes measure the level of the fuel in the tank, as a consequence of changing capacitance due to the amount the probe is immersed. This allows the determination of the fuel volume in the tank.
Yet the information that is needed by pilots is the quantity of fuel on board expressed as a weight. The translation of fuel volume into fuel weight is performed by the FQIC using the fuel density measured by specific devices in each wing tank (fig.1).
The low level sensing does not appear on the System Description page. Therefore, for fuel indication, do not rely on SD page only.
Fuel Flow Meters: a source based on engines consumption
Each engine is equipped with Fuel Flow Meters that measure the quantity of fuel consumed by the engine. This information is integrated by the FADEC and provides pilots with information on the fuel used.
Low level sensors: an additional independent source based on dedicated sensors in the wing tank
In addition to the sensors and probes feeding the FQI system, each wing tank is equipped with three independent dedicated low level sensors. These sensors are located in such a way that they become dry when the remaining fuel in the tank is approximately 750 kg. If two sensors in the same tank remain dry for more than 30 seconds, a low level alert triggers in the cockpit (fig.2).
The low level sensors are fully independent from the Fuel Quantity Indication, and are different in that they:
Do not provide pilots with a continuous indication of the fuel quantity in the wing tanks, but only the signal that the fuel level has reached below 750 kg (threshold crossed).
The information provided to pilots in the form of the low level alert results from a physical measure (sensors dry or wet) rather than from a calculation.
The A320 Family aircraft low level indication is based on remaining fuel quantity in the tank being sufficient to meet the requirement of 30 minutes at 1500 ft (corresponding to approximately 1 200 kg). Should the low level alert trigger on both fuel tanks, the total remaining fuel is: 750kg + 750kg = 1 500 kg.
The presence of water in the fuel tanks can lead to erroneous (over reading) fuel indications. The parameters used by the fuel system (density and capacitance) are highly affected by the presence of water. Flight deck effects of a buildup of water in the fuel tanks include fuel gauging fluctuations and over reads.
Consequently, among the maintenance tasks that are to be performed if pilots detect an abnormal fuel indication during a fuel check is fuel tank draining (fig.3). This can also help to prevent microbiological contamination, which is often another cause of fuel gauging fluctuations.
An unnecessary burden or essential safety net?
Ensuring an accurate awareness of the quantity of fuel on board requires use of several sources of data. Certainly the FQI is the primary source of fuel indication, but the other key sources such as the Fuel Used, the fuel uplifted at the latest refuel, the crosscheck between what is expected to be uplifted and what is uplifted, information from the refueler and fuel consumption figures during flight, are all important. But to ensure the information remains accurate, the safety barrier common to all cases is fuel monitoring by the crew.
Although fuel checks with the manual calculations they involve can sometimes be perceived as a tedious task, they form in reality an integral part of the measures taken to ensure safe operations. They were designed and meant for detecting as early as possible any fuel quantity issue, ensuring timely and accurate maintenance intervention, and allowing appropriate measures to secure the safety of the flight. They are applicable to all Airbus Families aircraft from the first A300B to the latest A350, and remain an essential part of airmanship when piloting the A320 Family aircraft.
What is to be checked and when?
The maximum efficiency of fuel checks relies on the flight crew performing a number of checks regularly and at different times to either confirm anticipations, or detect any discrepancy.
The first fuel check to be performed is before start to consolidate the information about the total amount of fuel available for the flight. This check consists in making sure that:
Initial Fuel On Board (FOB) + Fuel Uplifted = Fuel On Board (FOB) ± Δ
FOB is the fuel quantity derived from the FQI system.
Fuel Uplifted is the amount of fuel indicated by the refueler as having been added during refueling. This may require converting volume into weight, based on the uplifted fuel density.
Δ is an acceptable tolerance (see Why do we need to consider a certain tolerance on fuel onboard values? insert).
During the flight
During the flight, fuel checks mainly aim at detecting any abnormal consumption, be it due to a leak or unanticipated drag (e.g. spoiler or landing gear, slats or flaps not fully retracted) or any other reason.
Indeed, such situation would make the FMS fuel predictions too optimistic and potentially lead to fuel exhaustion in flight.
To ensure that there is no undetected fuel leak, the following calculation should be performed at each way point or every 30 minutes:
Fuel On Board (FOB) + Fuel Used = Initial Fuel On Board (FOB) ± Δ
Fuel Used is derived from the fuel flow meters.
In addition, the remaining FOB and Fuel Used values must also be consistent with the values given by the computed flight plan at each waypoint.
At the end of the flight, when the aircraft has reached its parking stand, a final fuel check is to be performed to check the consistency between the information provided by the various sources and thus detect any abnormal discrepancy that would call for maintenance actions. The post flight fuel check consists of making sure that:
Fuel On Board (FOB) + Fuel Used = Initial Fuel On Board (FOB) ± Δ
WHAT IF A FUEL CHECK IS MISSED?
Depending on the underlying reason for a fuel quantity issue, missing a fuel check may make it very difficult to detect. In the second event described, the failure of the Fuel Quantity Indication Computer did not lead to a systematic wrong indication but rather to quantity fluctuations. The fuel quantity indicated by the FQI system before the first flight of the day was correct. In such cases, skipping a fuel check may be a missed opportunity to detect a failure that may not be detectable later on, at the time of the following check. More generally, whatever the origin of a fuel quantity issue, detecting it as early as possible allows for managing it and making sure appropriate decisions can be made in time to best manage the rest of the flight as safely and efficiently as possible.
WHY DO WE NEED TO CONSIDER A CERTAIN TOLERANCE ON FUEL ON BOARD VALUES?
Due to the nature of the fuel system, it is essential that the system tolerance be taken into consideration when performing fuel quantity calculations. The overall FQI system accuracy is designed to take into consideration several factors such as: attitude effects, wing deformation, systems tolerances, manufacturing tolerances, component tolerances, environmental effects, fuel characteristics.
These individual tolerances lead to an overall tolerance on the global system resulting from the worst case (maximum tolerance) on each individual element.
The maximum tolerance is defined for the aircraft to guarantee an acceptable level of integrity of the measure and the associated fuel quantity information. When a fuel check is performed, any fuel discrepancy calculated by the crew and exceeding this value may then be considered abnormal.
For an A320 Family aircraft, the instrumental tolerance on the ground is calculated as follows:
± (1% of current FOB + 1% max possible FOB for this aircraft)
As an illustration, for an A320 aircraft, if there are 5 tons left in the aircraft, the maximum normal tolerance value is:
± (5000kg (current FOB) * 1% + 20000kg (max FOB)* 1% ) = ± 250kg
Note: The FQI system is designed in such a way that the lower the fuel quantity in the tank, the more accurate the fuel indication.
The FQI system is calibrated on ground during manufacturing and its accuracy (as per the formula above) will remain the same throughout the operational life of the aircraft.
TO FURTHER ENHANCE SAFETY…
Following the investigation of real events involving fuel monitoring issues, Airbus identified and implemented enhancements in several areas:
Further refinement of the description of the Fuel Quantity Indicating and level sensing systems in the FCOM documentation. During the interactions with the airlines involved, it turned out that the independence of the two fuel measures coming from respectively the FQI system and the low level alert was not clear to all crews.
Definition of empirical criteria on A320 Family aircraft to consider a fuel discrepancy “abnormal” or “unusual” when performing the before start fuel check. These thresholds will be expressed in kg or lbs and will vary depending on the fuel on board and fuel uplifted. They will lead to a generic maintenance task in the TSM (Trouble Shooting Manual).
Service Bulletin A320-28-1214 for A318/A319/A320 and Service Bulletin A320-28-1202 for A321 aircraft introduce a new fuel leak detection function, which eases and improves the detection of a fuel leak. This new function is meant to prevent situations where a loss of fuel would remain undetected by the crew.
A new FCOM evolution will be available soon, that will describe the triggering conditions of the low level alert in the procedure, and to show that the alert is independent of the displayed fuel.
SAFETY EXTERIOR INSPECTION • Wheel Chocks • Landing Gear Doors • APU Area PRELIMINARY COCKPIT PREPARATION by CM2 – OVERVIEW Clearance Check from TECH LOG Power UP Use External Power / APU Light UP Set Cockpit Lighting Temperature Control Ground Cart / APU / Cargo Heat Aircraft Status Check on ECAM and TECH LOG Safety Checks Before Walkaround PRELIMINARY COCKPIT PREPARATION – EXPANDED CLEARANCE • Tech Log – Check Aircraft Released to Service POWER UP WEATHER RADAR 1 This is the only step that is to be done in the transit checks. Radar – OFF Windshear / PWS– OFF Gain knob – AUTO/CAL Mode Selector – As Required ENGINE Masters Switch 1 and 2 – OFF Mode Selector – NORM LANDING GEAR Lever – Down WIPERS Both Selectors – OFF ELECTRICS • AVAIL Light ON – EXT PWR ON • AVAIL Light OFF: ➢ A/C Not Electrically Supplied for > 6 hours o Batt Voltage Check 2 ▪ Above 25.5 V – Batt 1,2 AUTO ▪ At or Below 25.5 V – Charge for 20 mins and check again 3 ➢ A/C Electrically Supplied within < 6 hours o Batt 1,2 AUTO 4 1. Procedures throughout this document refer to Collins WXR-1200. For Honeywell RDR-4000 (installed in some aircraft like AP-BMX), please refer to the A320 Line Training Document. I also wants to know more things related to
ERP For SME. 2. Check batteries voltage with Batt Pb OFF. 3. Charge batteries with Batt Pb on AUTO. Check charging on ELEC page (i.e. battery contactor closed) 4. Batt voltage >25.5 ensures a charge above 50%. If APU is to be started on batteries then start within 30 mins of putting Batt Pb on AUTO (delay of more than 35 mins can lead to battery charge of 9.5qt + Estimated Consumption (average consumption is 0.5 qt/h) 1. Check the HOOR on ECAM: Hydraulic, Oxygen, Oil, Recall. Check Tech Log by cross checking it with ECAM recall status, review CF items (CDL if applicable) & associated MEL / dispatch procedures, previous snags and their rectification, periodic checks validity and then sign to accept it. BEFORE WALKAROUND S E A T E D F/CTL SPEEDBRAKES Lever – Check Retracted and Disarmed FLAPS Position – Check ECAM to confirm that it agrees with handle position PARKING BRAKE ACCU Pressure – Check in Green (Use Yellow electric pump1 to recharge if req.) Also I can use this system on
mobile erp. Handle – On (With 1 brake > 500oC, avoid parking brakes unless necessary) Brake Pressure Indicator – Check Normal ALT BRAKES 2 Yellow Elec Pump – Off Chocks – On Parking Brakes – Off Brake Pedals – Press to Check Pressure on Brake Pressure Indicator 3 Brake Pedals Release – Parking Brakes ON 4 ATIS Both CM1 and CM2 will obtain Airfield Data. PERFORMANCE CM2 will compute preliminary takeoff performance and note down the data on CFP and hand it over to CM1 who will cross check it with his own RTOW charts. Max QNH ALT from RTOW charts will be inserted as the ENG OUT ACC. S T A N D I N G EMER EQUIPMENT ‐ Life Jackets ‐ Smoke Hoods - Gloves ‐ Axe ‐ Portable Fire Extinguisher - Oxygen Masks (goggles attached) ‐ Escape Ropes Imagine yourself wearing a "Life Jacket" and a "Smoke Hood". Then putting on your "Gloves" with "Axe" in one hand and "Fire Extinguisher" in the other. You then use the "Rope" to exit the cockpit to breath some fresh "Oxygen". CB Rear and Overhead Circuit Breaker Panels GEAR PINS / COVERS Onboard and Stowed 1. Yellow electric pump pressurizes Yellow & Green systems. Ground clearance required prior to using it. 2. Check before first flight of the day. 3. Pressure must build up without delay symmetrically on left & right sides for the same application simultaneously applied on left & right pedals. With full pedal deflection, the pressure must be between 2000 and 2700 PSI. 4. Parking brake must be on for exterior inspection to check brake wear indicators. 5 SAFA (Safety Assessment of Foreign Aircraft) CHECKLIST WALKAROUND – CM2 6 BEFORE BOARDING CLEARANCE CM1 CM2 Man Check Hard Copies A Altitude Flight altitude, time & related weather. B Baggage Baggage & seating related CG issues. C Communication Intercom, discrete code & cockpit door. D Documents Valid crew (cabin/cockpit) documents. E Emergencies Evacuation, emergency descent etc. Aircraft Document File • Airline Operating Certificate • German / KSA GACA Cert. (if req) • C of A • C of R • Weight Schedule • Fuel Carnet • Wireless License • Emergency Equipment Location Chart • Insurance Certificate • Residual Disinfection Certificate Aircraft Manuals • QRH (Rest in iPad) • Technical Logbook Other • Misc. Blank Forms File • Latest revision record (within 20 days) • Flight Pack List Machine • Technical Status and Dispatch Procedures Environment • Weather conditions • Cabin Status (temperature, catering etc.) COCKPIT PREPARATION • A fast IRS alignment must be performed if a complete IRS alignment is not necessary and the difference between the IRS position and the FMGC position is at or above 5 NM. • Pack Flow: LO if the number of occupants is below 141 and HI for abnormally hot and humid conditions. • BAT buttons OFF then ON to initiate a charging cycle. After 10 secs charging current should be < 60 A & decreasing. If not, then after the end of the charging cycle perform this check again. 7 • Third ACP PA knob on RECEPT allows CVR recording of cabin announcements. Set volume > medium range. • Use of the ISIS bugs function is not recommended. • If clock date is incorrect set it manually and keep the mode to internal (INT) for the whole flight. Clock date initialization must be completed in less than a minute otherwise, CFDS will have to be reset by a maintenance procedure in order to synchronize the lower ECAM time display with the cockpit clock display. For time precision keep the clock in GPS or INT by syncing it with GPS at least once per day. • Insert the weights in FMGC after completing all other insertions to avoid cycles of prediction computations. • Thrust Reduction Altitude – 1000 feet AAL. Acceleration Altitude – 3000 feet AAL. • Cost Index – As mentioned in the flight plan. Keep a track of latest circulars. • Check the accuracy of tropopause value to ensure accuracy of FMS predictions. • Do not engage autothrust on ground, as it may generate the AUTO FLT A/THR OFF warning at engine start. • Note altimeter readings (QNH) on the CFP. Maximum altitude difference between: o PFD and PFD = +20 feet. o PFD and Elevation = +75 feet (RVSM tolerance). o PFD and ISIS = + 100 feet. • After testing the oxygen masks, check that there is no REGUL LO PR message on DOOR/OXY page. Due to residual pressure between the LP valve and oxygen masks, an LP valve failed in the closed position may go undetected during oxygen masks test. Absence of REGUL LO PR message ensures that LP valve is open. • Check that CAB PRESS page displays LDG ELEV AUTO. • Check on STS page if INOP SYS display is compatible with MEL. • Check IRS alignment on POSITION MONITOR page. Distance between each IRS and the FMS position should be lower than 5 NM. Confirm on ND aircraft position with that of airport, SID and surrounding NAVAIDs. • Takeoff Performance 8 TAKEOFF BRIEFING – PF AIRCRAFT • QRH ➢ A/C Reg, MSN, Revision & Insertion Date ➢ Applicable OEBs (especially the red ones) • FMS ➢ DATA Page ▪ Type and Model ➢ FMS INIT- B Pag ▪ Block Fuel (FOB on EWD) ▪ Estimated TOW ▪ Exra Time / Fuel at Destination ➢ PERF TAKEOFF Pag ▪ TO RWY ▪ TO CONF ▪ Flex / TOGA ▪ V1, VR, V2 ▪ Transition Altitude ▪ Thrust Reduction / ACC Altitude ➢ F-PLN & PROG Page ▪ Route Waypoints ▪ Time, Distance and Fuel ▪ Strategy in secondary flight plan WEATHER & NOTAMS • Weather reports and applicable procedures • Applicable NOTAMS and procedures STARTUP & TAXI • ATC Procedures (push and start procedures) • A/C Procedures (engine start etc.) • Routing to the anticipated runway RUNWAY • Dimensions (Length, Width, Stopway) • Surface Condition • Lighting • Packs / Anti ice – On/Off Takeoff DEPARTURE • Normal SID – Routing and Constraints • Engine Out SID – Routing and Constraint • Navigation Frequencies to be used (RAD NAV) • MSA SPECIAL PROCEDURES • NADP • Weather • Terrain • Failures (Communication etc.) 9 EMERGENCY BRIEFING – CM1 • This will be left/right hand seat takeoff. Failure Before 100 Knots or V1 • For any failure before 100 knots or V1, clearly CALL OUT THE MALFUNCTION and I will call STOP or GO. • If the call is STOP, I will apply the REJECTED TAKEOFF PROCEDURE and bring the aeroplane to a complete stop. • I will set the PARKING BRAKE and call “ATTENTION CREW AT STATION”. • You will monitor REV GREEN and DECEL and silence any AURAL WARNING and inform ATC. • Thereafter you will carry out ECAM actions on my command. • IF EVACUATION is required, we will carry out the “Emergency Evacuation Checklist”. Failure After V1 • For any failure after V1, takeoff will be continued and NO ACTION BEFORE 400 feet AGL EXCEPT silencing of any AURAL WARNING and GEAR UP. • Reaching 400 feet AGL, ECAM actions on my command. • For engine failure / damage / fire, when ENGINE IS SECURED: Stop ECAM, level off, accelerate and cleanup. • If ENGINE IS NOT SECURED: Continue climbing until engine is secured, but not above EO maximum acceleration altitude. • At GREEN DOT OPEN CLB, select MCT. • Resume ECAM, complete AFTER T/O C/L and check the STATUS. • FLY (a) EO Routing (b) SID (c) Radar Vectors (c) Immediate Turn Back. REJECTED TAKEOFF: Before 100 knots (Less serious. Abort is at Captain’s discretion depending on the circumstances) Any ECAM Warning / Caution. Between 100 knots & V1 (More Serious. Be go minded except for a few situations, as mentioned below) Failures with ECAM Left Hand Items Side Stick Fault Right Hand Items Thrust Lever Fault Engine Items Fire Failure Reverser Unlocked or Fault. Failures without ECAM Sudden loss of thrust. Any major failure. If aeroplane is unsafe to fly due any reason. Tire failure within 20 knots of V1: Unless debris from the tire causes noticeable engine parameter fluctuation, it is better to takeoff, reduce fuel load and land with full runway length available. Weather Windshear. Note: Exceeding EGT red line or nose gear vibration should not result in an abort above 100 knots * * FCTM > Abnormal and Emergency Procedures > MISC > Rejected Takeoff. 10 BEFORE START CLEARANCE CM1 CM2 Seat Position Adjust Fuel 1 FOB – Check against FPL and ECAM Load Sheet 2 Cross Check Check FMS Takeoff Data Cross Check & Insert Calculate 3 MCDU PERF TO – PF and F-PLN – PM External Power 4 AVAIL / Disconnect Checklist 5 1. Check computerized fuel figures for gross errors (Ref: Flight Plan Tables in FCOM performance). Also check that “Last Flight FOB + Uplift = Current FOB”. Discrepancy allowed is 400 Kg for refueling up to 6 tons, 500 Kg between 6 and 12 tons and 600 Kg for more than 12 tons. Discrepancies above these figures require maintenance action. 2. Actual ZFW > Estimated ZFW by 2000 Kgs requires a new flight plan (OETB: FLT OPS/TECH/14/ Fri Apr 21 2017). No change in CG is required if passenger or weight changes (loading/off-loading) are restricted to (a) 1 passenger with baggage in Zone A or D OR (b) 2 passengers with baggage in zone B or C OR (c) 50Kg in forward or rear hold OR (d) 100 Kg in aft hold (Ref: Weight Report). CM2 will announce ZFW and ZFWCG, which will be inserted in FMS by CM1. CM2 will also announce TOCG and TO FUEL. CM1 will announce TOW from FMS and CM2 will confirm from Load Sheet. CM1 will cross check, record time and sign when all formalities are completed. 3. Trim Position for THS, V1, VR, V2 and FLEX temperature. 4. Disconnect all externals (AC VAN, GPU etc.) and confirm push back tug is connected. 5. Standard Call for Checklist. CM1: “Before Start Checklist”. CM2: “Down to the Line” (once done). 11 AT START CLEARANCE CM1 CM2 Push / Start Clearance From Ground Crew 1 From ATC ATC Transponder Set as Required Windows / Doors 2 Check Closed Check Closed PA Announcement 3 Slides 2 Check Armed Beacon ON Thrust Levers Idle ACCU Press. Indicator Check Pushback Required NWS STRG DISC MEMO – Displayed 4 Before Start Checklist – Below the Line Parking Brake – OFF 5 Announce – OFF Blocks Time Note – Time Clock – Start Pushback Competed – Parking Brake ON Brake Pressure – Check Tow Bar – Disconnect Pushback Not Required Parking Brake – ON Brake Pressure – Check Before Start Checklist – Below the Line Checklist 6 1. Confirm if they are ready and communicate to them start sequence and ATC push back clearance. 2. Confirm on DOOR page. 3. “Cabin crew prepare for departure, arm the door slides and cross check” 4. If this message is not displayed but ground crew confirms that NWS bypass pin is in towing position, then do not start engine during pushback (to avoid possible nose landing gear damage upon green hydraulic pressurization). Ref to MEL (NWS Electrical Deactivation Box) for dispatch. In case of a power push, NWS selector should remain in normal position for steering (Ref: PRO-NOR-SUP-MISC-D Pushback with Power Push Unit). 5. When asked by ground crew. 6. Standard Call for Checklist. CM1: “Below the Line”. CM2: “Before Start Checklist Complete” (once done). Before push and start, a quick look at the memo section of E/WD gives some great clues for do items that can be sometimes missed. 1) PARK BRK – Self-explanatory (covered by checklist). 2) NW STRG DISC – Refer to footnote no 4 above. 3) TCAS – As required at some aerodromes. 4) APU – Reminder to disconnect the GPU & AC Van. 12 STARTUP COCKTAIL MANUAL ENGINE START WITH EXT PNEUMATIC & ELEC POWER FOLLOWED BY CROSS BLEED ENG START IN NORMAL AUTO MODE BEFORE START • PACKS – Both OFF • APU and ENG Bleeds – ALL OFF • X BLEED – OPEN ENG 2 START • ENG MAN START Pb – ON • N2 22% (or max motoring, min 20%) – ENG MASTER ON • EGT – Check increasing within 15 seconds • N2 50% – Check start valve closure (between 50-56%) • ENG MAN START Pb – OFF AFTER ENG 2 START • EXT POWER – Deselect to AVAIL & Disconnect • EXT Pneumatic – Remove • PACKS – Both ON • ENG Bleed 2 – ON ENG 1 START • Area – Clear • ENG 2 Thrust – Adjust (for 30 psi) • ENG 1 – Start (normal auto mode) AFTER ENG 1 START • THRUST – Idle • X BLEED – AUTO • ENG BLEED 1 – ON Note: This is a “Read and Do” Supplementary Procedure in FCOM 13 ENGINE START – AUTOMATIC1 CM1 CM2 Engine Mode Selector IGN / Start Announce: “Engine 2 Start” Engine 2 Master Switch ON 2 Sequence of Events Monitor: • N2 Increases – Start Valve Inline, Bleed Pressure Green, Oil Pressure Rises. • N2 16% – Indication of Active Ignitor A or B. • N2 22% – FF Increases (may cross approx. 200 Kg/h). • EGT & N1 – Increases within 15s (max) after fuel is ON. • N2 50% – Start valve closure starts & Igniter indication Off. Idle Parameters Approx: 3 • N1 – 20%. • N2 – 60%. • EGT – 400oC. • FF – 300 Kg/h. Grey Background on N2 Indication Disappear 4 Engine 1 Start 5 Same as for Engine 2 Pack Valves Both reopen with a 30s delay after 2nd engine N2 is >50% 1. Manual starting (FCOM PRO-NOR-SUP-ENG – CM2 reads & CM1 acts) is recommended in following cases: ➢ After a Start Abort, due to: o Engine Stall o Engine EGT Over Limit o Low Start Air Pressure ➢ When Expecting a Start Abort, due to: o Degraded bleed performance in hot and high conditions o High Residual EGT / Reduced EGT margin in hot and high conditions o Marginal performance of external pneumatic cart o Intermittent ECAM ENG IGN FAULT during first start of the day ➢ A Dry Crank is performed 2. ON when all amber crosses & messages have disappeared from engine parameters (on upper ECAM) and bleed pressure is available (on lower ECAM). In case of electrical supply failure during start (loss of ECAM DUs), abort start and perform a 30s dry crank. 3. Approximate ISA sea level values rounded off for painless absorption. 4. During start if fuel leak is reported from the engine drain mast, run the engine at idle for 5 min. If leak does not disappear then maintenance action is required. 5. PTU FAULT is triggered, if the last engine is started within 40s following the end of the cargo doors operation. The warning can be reset by switching the yellow ELEC pump ON, then OFF. 14 AFTER START CM1 CM2 Engine Mode Selector Normal 1 APU Bleed OFF 2 Engine Anti-ice As Required 3 Wing Anti-ice 4 As Required APU Master Switch OFF (if not required) Ground Spoilers Arm Rudder Trim Zero Flaps Takeoff Position 5 Pitch Trim Handwheel Set Status Reminder Check Not Displayed – If displayed then check ECAM status Ground Crew Announce: “Clear to Disconnect” “Hand Signal on the Left / Right” N/W STEER DISC MEMO Check – Not Displayed Checklist 6 1. This is a cue to do “After Start” procedure. 2. This action enables to avoid ingestion of engine exhaust gases. If APU is necessary for performance purpose then bleed can be selected ON before takeoff. 3. Must be ON during all ground operation, when icing conditions (OAT/TAT < 10oC with visible moisture) exist or are anticipated. In case you are anticipating icing conditions enroute, it’s not a bad idea (even in non-icing conditions) to check engine anti-ice serviceability by turning it on momentarily and verifying that the fault light goes out and there is an increase of idle N1. During ground operation in icing conditions and OAT +3oC or less for > 30 mins, carry out ice shedding procedure i.e. 70% N1 for 30s every 30 mins and also just before takeoff. If this is not possible then power setting and dwell time as high as practical. In freezing rain, drizzle, fog or heavy snow, ice shedding may be enhanced, by additional run ups at intervals, to not exceed 10 min, advancing throttles to 70 % N1 momentarily (no hold time). 4. APU bleed not authorized for using wing anti ice. In icing conditions, wing anti-ice may be turned on to prevent ice accretion on the wing leading edge. It must be turned on if there is evidence of ice accretion, such as ice on the visual indicator, or on the wipers, or with the SEVERE ICE DETECTED alert. Ice accretion is considered severe when the ice accumulation on the airframe reaches approximately 5mm thick or more. 5. In icing conditions with rain, slush or snow, maintain flaps retracted until takeoff point. 6. After receiving the hand signal from the ground crew, CM1/CM2 will call "HAND SIGNAL RECEIVED AND BYPASS PIN SIGHTED". Then CM1 will ask for "AFTER START CHECKLIST". 15 16 TAXI 1 CM1 CM2 P A R T 1 Clearance Obtain Taxi Light ON 2 Flight Controls Check (before taxi clearance if unable then before arming the autobrakes) Area Clearance Call: “Clear Left Side” Call: “Clear Right Side” Call: “Hand Signal / By Pass Pin Sighted” Parking Brake OFF Brake Pressure Check Zero 3 Brake Pedals Press and Call: “BRAKE CHECK” Call: “PRESSURE ZERO” 4 P A R T 2 ATC Clearance Confirm for any Changes Runway Change • Direction • Surface Conditions Verify Update: • FMS and FCU • Performance o Thrust: FLX / TOGA o Config: Flaps o Speed: V1, VR, V2 Departure Change • SID / Radar Vectors Update: • FMS and FCU Takeoff Briefing By PF (if there is any change) P A R T 3 Flight Instruments Check / Set • PFD / ND • ISIS Check / Set • PFD / ND • FD – Both ON PF ND – WX Radar | PM ND – Terrain Mode 5 Final Checks Cabin Report – Receive “CABIN SECURED FOR TAKEOFF” Surveillance Radar – ON 6 Predictive WS – AUTO ATC Code / Mode – Set Brakes Autobrake – Max Memo TO Config – Test 7 TO Memo – Check No Blue Checklist 1. Operate the engine at or near idle for at least 2 mins before advancing to high power. Taxi time at idle may be included in the warm up period. Speed 20 knots on straight taxi routes and for turns of 90˚ or more, speed less than 10 knots. Accelerate to 30kts, then one smooth brake application to decelerate to 10kts. The aircraft is correctly aligned when the centerline is lined-up between the PFD and ND. A/C needs a runway width of 30M (98 feet) for a 180o turn. The GS for the entire maneuver should be between 5 to 8 kts, to prevent the width of the turn from increasing. 2. At night, also switch on runway turn off lights if required. 3. There may be slight residual pressure for a short time. 4. After ensuring that there is no brake pressure indication on triple gauge. 5. After checking weather radar, the PM for the sector will select Terrain Mode on the ND. 6. To check radar with auto tilt function, set MULTISCAN to MAN. If weather is not significant, down tilt to display ground echoes. Once checked put it back to AUTO. Gain must be manually set to +4, when MULTISCAN is set to AUTO & when flying below FL 200. Scanning the departure path at takeoff will also be done in MAN mode (max tilt +15o ) and then back to AUTO. Without auto tilt function (AP-BLB & C), after checking, keep the tilt to 4 o if not suspecting adverse weather. 7. On receiving cabin ready report from LCC. 17 TAXI – PART 1 TAXI – PART 2 18 TAXI – PART 3 Such S Surveillance Radar – ON Predictive WS – AUTO ATC Code / Mode – Set Bad B Brakes Autobrake – Max Memory M Memo TO Config – Test TO Memo – Check No Blue 180 DEG TURN ON RUNWAY (CM1 as PF) • Min runway width 30m (should give additional margin when runway is wet / contaminated). • Ground Speed around 5-8 knots during the entire procedure (5 knots on wet runway). • Taxi on the right of runway. • Initial turn 25 deg from runway axis. • When sitting over the runway edge line, turn right with full tiller deflection. • Differential thrust and brakes can be used if required. • When turn is complete, align with centerline and release tiller to neutral before stopping. 19 BEFORE TAKEOFF CM1 CM2 Takeoff Clearance Obtain Exterior Lights ON 1 Engine Mode As Required 2 TCAS TA or TA/RA Cabin Crew Advise 3 Brake Fans 4 OFF Packs As Required 5 Sliding Table Stowed Approach Path Check Clear –