- g the air above the ground and/or cooling the air next to the ground will make the atmosphere more stable. The ground and the air above it.
- A thermodynamic diagram showing the stability of the atmosphere based on the dry (Γ d = 9.8 K km -1) and moist (Γ m = 4.5 K km -1) adiabatic lapse rates (Created by Britt Seifert). The atmosphere is said to be absolutely stable if the environmental lapse rate is less than the moist adiabatic lapse rate
- 212 APPENDIX A. ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES Gifford (1976) reviewed stability typing schemes and preferred a scheme which uses the Monin-Obukov length, L, defined by Here u* is the friction velocity, Cp is the heat capacity of air, pair is the ambient air density, T is the ambient temperature at the reference height, k is von Karman'
- ations, therefore, meteorologists analyzing upper-air observations use a thermodynamic diagram called an adiabatic chart as a convenient tool for making stability estimates. The basic portion of the chart is a set of gridlines of temperature and pressure (o
- es the likelihood of convective activity, cloud type (stratus or cumulus), likelihoo
- e whether or not a parcel will rise or sink in the atmosphere, one must compare the parcels temperature (T p) with that of the environment (T e) at some altitude: -i Tf p > T e what will the parcel do? -i Tf p =
- es whether or not air will rise and cause storms, sink and cause clear skies, or essentially do nothing.
**Stability**is dependent upon the Dry and Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rates and the Environmental Lapse Rate.We will eventually be able to compare a measured ELR with both the DALR and SALR and deter

- Source: Pasquill, 1961. NOTES: 1. Strong insolation corresponds to sunny midday in midsummer in England; slight insolation to similar conditions in midwinter
- e how stable the.
- Lower Atmospheric Stability (Haines) Index. The Lower Atmospheric Severity Index, commonly known as the Haines Index, was developed during the 1980s as a fire weather tool to estimate the effect of atmospheric dryness and stability on the growth potential of a wildfire. The goal was to identify typical combinations of humidity and stability and.
- Stability (or atmospheric stability) refers to air's tendency to either rise and create storms (instability), or to resist vertical movement (stability). The simplest way to understand how stability works is to imagine a parcel of air having a thin, flexible cover that allows it to expand but prevents the air inside from mixing with the.
- ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY (Continued) 10/20/99 We know that an unsaturated parcel will rise, expand, and cool at a rate of 9.8 C per kilometer. We also know that if the parcel becomes saturated, then the latent heat released by condensing water vapor will make the parcel cool at a different, lesser rate - 4 to 7 C per kilometer

Atmospheric stability CAN BE DOWNLOADED FROM yasir09me.blogspot.com Yasir Hashmi student at MUET Jamshoro. Follow 2 Comments 13 Likes Statistics Notes Full Name. Comment goes here. 12 hours ago Delete Reply Block. Are you. Atmospheric Temperature and Stability 4.1 The temperature structure of the atmosphere Most people are familiar with the fact that the temperature of the atmosphere decreases with altitude. The temperature outside a commercial airliner at 12 km (36,000 ft) is typically -40°C or colder. Mountains are often capped with snow and ice, while adjacen How-to guide for Section 1, question 1 on Lab 5 - Atmospheric Stability.We can use a copy of the first chart to plot Environmental Lapse Rate for question B.

* Atmospheric instability is a condition where the Earth's atmosphere is generally considered to be unstable and as a result the weather is subjected to a high degree of variability through distance and time*. [clarification needed] Atmospheric stability is a measure of the atmosphere's tendency to discourage or deter vertical motion, and vertical motion is directly correlated to different types. Atmospheric stability ! Stable - resists vertical movement! A parcel lifted in this condition will be pushed back to its original level ! Unstable - supports vertical movement ! A parcel lifted in this condition will continue to rise ! Neutral - no effect on vertical movemen

More than 1,000 nautical charts NOAA's Office of Coast Survey maintains the nation's nautical charts and publications for U.S. coasts and the Great Lakes, covering 95,000 miles of shoreline and 3.4 million square nautical miles of waters The atmospheric stability can be determined using the standard deviation of elevation angle (phi) of the vertical wind direction. Sigma phi is a good indicator of the scale and intensity of the vertical motions of the atmosphere. The disadvantage of the method is that it requires a highly dedicated maintenance program to assure proper. This process causes stability of atmospheric circulation due to which vertical circulation of air is resisted. ADVERTISEMENTS: For example, at ground surface if the temperature of a parcel of air is 40°C, the dry adiabatic lapse rate and normal (environmental) lapse rate are 10°C per 1000m and 6.5° C per 1000 m respectively, then at the.

* Atmospheric Stability*. Asked by: Skyhawk 12966 views atompheric, stability General Aviation. What is the BEST way for a pilot to determine atmospheric stability? I know the basic characteristics of stable vs. unstable atmosphere, but I am by far no means an expert on meteorology. It is hard for me to just look out of the window and know. Mesoscale Atmospheric Stability Chart. Created by Marie Smith over the course of 2003-2005, sure to change again throughout Meteorology 361 . Mesoscale Atmospheric Stability Chart. Forecast Area: I usually look specifically at central PA, PA as a whole, and/or WV/VA/MD/STierNY/OH. Model Used: Usually ETA/NAM and two others if possible. RUC for.

* The pressure of the atmosphere varies with time and location*. Due to the changing atmospheric pressure, a standard reference was developed. The standard atmosphere at sea level is a surface temperature of 59 °F or 15 °C and a surface pressure of 29.92 inches of mercury (Hg) or 1,013.2 mb. [Figure 4-2 Table 1. An atmospheric sounding of the environment. where the bottom measurement is for air touching the surface. The soundings are plotted in Fig 2, using dots for T, and x's for T d.The boundary layer is the hot humid layer of air between the surface and a height where the pressure is about 85 kPa. The capping inversion is the isothermal layer between 85 and 80 kPa Adiabatic Processes and Atmospheric Stability. Click the radio button located on the left page margin to check your answers. Referring to the Capacity of Saturated Air chart (see Table 1 in Lab 06), we see that air with a temperature of 60 degrees F has a capacity of 10.699 grams per kilogram. To find the mixing ratio, simply multiply the. Chapter 6: Stability • Concept of Stability • Lapse RatesLapse Rates the atmosphere. Diabatic Process • Involve the direct addition or removal of heatInvolve the direct addition or removal of heat energy. • Example: Air passing over a cool surface losesExample: Air passing over a cool surface loses.

- Today we will take Monday's post on temperature inversions a step further with a discussion on atmospheric stability and the types of weather we can expect with a stable and unstable air mass.. Atmospheric stability is defined as the resistance of the atmosphere to vertical motion. A stable atmosphere resists an upward or downward movement
- Section 3 illustrates the advantages of remote sensing instruments for monitoring atmospheric stability and turbulence intensity in the atmospheric boundary layer. More information about the instruments and on how Ri , N d 2 , and N m 2 are calculated in a saturated and unsaturated atmosphere is provided in the auxiliary material
- Haines (1988) developed the Lower Atmosphere Stability Index, or Haines Index, for fire weather use. It is used to indicate the potential for wildfire growth by measuring the stability and dryness of the air over a fire. It is calculated by combining the stability and moisture content of the lower atmosphere into a number that correlates well with large fire growth
- 120 CHAPTER 5 • ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY Figure 5.1 Components of an Emagram thermo diagram. (a) Isobars (green thin horizontal lines with logarithmic spac-ing) and isotherms (green thin vertical lines) are used on all these charts as a common background. (b) Isohumes (from the Water Vapor chapter) are dotted light-blue lines
- Spring 2011 ATSC 3032 - Weather Analysis and Forecasting: Skew T diagrams and Stability 5 p nR*T (2) where n is the number of kilomoles per unit volume V (m3) and R* the universal gas constant. Defining R = R*/M, with M the average molecular weight of air1, p RT since nM =

- Atmospheric scientists use several more complicated (but more useful) graphs to display soundings, including the skew-T diagram and the tephigram (which are similar). As the skew-T diagram is more readily available, this is what I'll use. We'll start with a blank skew-T chart z
- Atmospheric stability. To make a cloud we need: Moisture; Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) or Ice Nuclei (IN) We will discuss these in more detail later! A method of cooling the air to saturation; Definitions Adiabatic - A process in which heat is neither added nor subtracted from the system
- The presense of ice or water in a cloud says nothing, however, about the stability of the atmosphere near the cloud. For stability clues, look at the vertical extent of the cloud. In order to obtain a better understanding of the different cloud types, explore one or more of the Cloud Atlases provided on this page
- Lapse rates and atmospheric stability . Atmospheric stability is a term used to qualitatively describe the amount of vertical motion of the air in the lower atmosphere (the troposphere). In broad general terms, the atmospheric stability can be characterized by these four categories: · A . very stable. atmosphere is one that has very little, if.

Vector files of chart features and available in S-57 format. NOAA ENCs support marine navigation by providing the official Electronic Navigational Chart used in ECDIS and in electronic charting systems. NOAA ENCs are updated weekly with Notice to Mariner corrections The atmospheric stability. In this part, we assume that T changes linearly with altitude. 3.1. Consider an air parcel initially in equilibrium with its surrounding air at altitude 3. 39th International Physics Olympiad - Hanoi - Vietnam - 2008 Theoretical Problem No. It reflects atmospheric stability and dryness for a layer of the atmosphere roughly 1 to 5 km above the surface. Just as important as recognizing what the Haines Index does indicate, is knowing what it does not indicate. The Haines Index says nothing about fuel conditions - whether fuels are abundant or sparse, wet or dry

- imum twist rate is for all of our flat based The atmospheric.
- istration National Weather Service National Centers for Environmental Prediction Aviation Weather Center 7220 NW 101st Terrace Kansas City, MO 64153-2371
- Atmospheric Stability and Adiabats. In order for clouds to form, air parcels must rise high enough for their temperatures to cool down to the dew point temperature, when saturation (100% relative humidity) occurs. Rising air takes place when it is warmer than the surrounding environment, or when forced to rise by mountains or a front..
- Along the right side of the chart are barbs showing wind speed and direction. The red line shows how the air temperature varies with altitude. Note that on this example chart the temperature at first decreases with altitude, then begins to increase (an inversion layer) around 550m, then decreases again by about 1300m on up. Fig.
- - Atmospheric stability conditionsAtmospheric stability conditions • many experimental measurements -charts have been createdhave been created - Correlated y and z to atmospheric stability and x 26 and
- Stability Release Height Surface Impacts. Fig 4-3, p.44 in Martin et al wind Describing Plume Concentrations. Factors Affecting Atmospheric Dilution (Mixing) • Wind Speed Concentration is inversely proportional to wind speed . Tim's Simple Plume Model h x. 1 2 3 mass/time passing point 1 = mass/tim

Pasquill stability categories in the N.E. region of India. Agrawal & Satyanarayana[29] analysed the long-term trend of percentage occurrence of stability classes in the north of India. Viswanadham & Santosh[30] also studied the relation between atmospheric stability and parameters of the surface-boundary layer over S. India. The atmospheric. The lapse rate is the rate at which an atmospheric variable, normally temperature in Earth's atmosphere, falls with altitude. Lapse rate arises from the word lapse, in the sense of a gradual fall.. It corresponds to the vertical component of the spatial gradient of temperature.Although this concept is most often applied to the Earth's troposphere, it can be extended to any gravitationally. 4.2 Atmospheric Stability. Air movement in the atmosphere is strongly influenced by atmospheric stability; recall that in a lake, stability occurs when higher temperatures and thus lower water density near the lake surface inhibit vertical mixing (Section 2.2.2). Similarly, the degree of stability resulting from the vertical temperature profile. Water vapor imagery detects moisture in the 600 to 300 millibar range in the atmosphere. A dark color on water vapor imagery implies a lack of moisture in the mid and upper levels of the atmosphere. The surface, 850 mb, and 700 mb charts can be used to assess the low level moisture profile

An atmospheric sounding is a vertical profile of the atmosphere, meant to be representative of the atmospheric conditions at the point at which the balloon was launched. Soundings are plotted on a variety of charts. Meteorologists most frequently look at sounding data on a Skew-T Log-P diagram, often just called a Skew-T for short. Skew-T Log-P. Atmospheric stability. The stability of the atmosphere depends on its ability to resist vertical motion. A stable atmosphere makes vertical movement difficult, and small vertical disturbances dampen out and disappear. In an unstable atmosphere, small vertical air movements tend to become larger, resulting in turbulent airflow and convective.

Stability is important enough that an entire chapter is dedicated to it in the FAA's Aviation Meteorology circular. For meteorologists, a chart known as the Skew‑T diagram is used every day at forecast centers. It's literally a worksheet that helps forecasters visualize the day's stability and make calculations on it The stability of the atmosphere can be determined from the temperature profile on a tephigram, along with the approximate vertical extent of any convective lifting and of consequent cloud formation. Locally, the stability of a layer of air depends upon its density with respect to the air T T d (a) (b) clou enough to facilitate estimates of the stability, (c) the ratio of area on the chart to thermodynamic energy is the same over the whole diagram, (d) the vertical in the atmosphere approximates the vertical coordinate of the diagram (i.e. the isobars are plotted to a logarithmic scale and pressure in the atmosphere decreases nearl

- g caused by human production of other greenhouse gases, however, leads to an increase in atmospheric water vapor because warmer.
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- 120 CHAPTER 5 • ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY Figure 5.1 Components of an Emagram thermo diagram. (a) Isobars (green thin horizontal lines with logarithmic spac- ing) and isotherms (green thin vertical lines) are used on all these charts as a common background. (b) Isohumes (from the Water Vapor chapter) are dotted light- blue lines. (c) The dark-orange solid lines are dry adiabats
- istration National Weather Service 1325 East West Highway Silver Spring, MD 20910 Page Author: NWS Internet Services Team Disclaime
- Lapse rates and atmospheric stability (CC) Diagram: Milton Beychok Diagram of the various lapse rates defining the change of atmospheric temperature with altitude. Atmospheric stability is a term used to qualitatively describe the amount of vertical motion of the air in the lower atmosphere (the troposphere)
- Enter your departure airport and time along with your destination airport and arrival time to view skew-t log-p charts for your route. Swipe right to view the charts along your route. Weather In The Vertical: Part 1. This is the first of a pair of talks on atmospheric stability for pilots. It explains stability, parcel theory and how these.

atmospheric stability based on the temperature difference between 850hPa and 500hPa. A value of 44 or higher indicates sufficient instability for thunderstorms to develop. The following parcel data is automatically generated using an algorithm which attempts to predict the atmospheric conditions at the time of maximu The GOES atmospheric temperature and moisture soundings are plotted on a 'Skew-T Log-P' Chart. The chart's name reflects the parameters associated with the vertical and horizontal axes. Atmospheric pressure (in millibars) is plotted along the vertical axis using a logarithmic scale, which represents the variation of atmospheric pressure with. The diffusion or dispersion of pollutants into the atmosphere is governed by the Environmental Lapse Rate (ELR) as well as Adiabatic Lapse rate (ALR), i.e., atmospheric temperature profile or atmospheric stability. 5. Coning Plume : • It is calculated that when horizontal wind velocity exceeds 32km/hour and under the condition of cloud.

On the long-term stability of reference gases for atmospheric O 2 /N 2 and CO 2 measurements. Tellus 59B, 3-14. Manning, A.C., R.F. Keeling and J.P. Severinghaus. 1999. Precise atmospheric oxygen measurements in a paramagnetic oxygen analyzer. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14: 1107-1115 050 - METEOROLOGY 050-01 THE ATMOSPHERE 050-01-01 Composition, extent, vertical division 8814. The troposphere is the: A - part of the atmosphere above the stratosphere B - part of the atmosphere below the tropopause C - boundary between the mesosphere and thermosphere D - boundary between the stratosphere and the mesosphere Ref: all Ans: Rather than assuming a fixed atmospheric condition, the calculator calculates an altitude-based atmosphere dependent on the input conditions and allows for the atmosphere to change in air density as the projectile climbs or descends along its line of flight. Gyroscopic Stability: Calculated using the rifle's twist rate, bullet physical.

TURNER STABILITY AND ATMOSPHERIC TENDENCY-Turner stability (Turner 1961) is a measure of atmospheric stability with values ranging between 1 and 7. By definition, Turner values of 1, 2 or 3 are possible only during daytime periods and values of 5, 6 or 7 are only possible during nighttime periods Hourly (red circles) and Daily (yellow circles) averaged CO 2 values from Mauna Loa, Hawaii for the last 31 days.. The graph, updated daily, shows as individual points daily and hourly mean CO 2 for the last 31 days. Daily average CO 2 values are computed from selected hourly values that satisfy 'background' conditions, i.e. stability and persistence of CO 2 concentrations (read below for more. The atmosphere is composed of 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen, and 1 percent other gases, such as argon or helium. Most of the oxygen is contained below 35,000 feet altitude. **Atmospheric** pressure. Though there are various kinds of pressure, pilots are mainly concerned with **atmospheric** pressure stability of an airplane. The aircraft's response to disturbance is associated with the inherent degree of stability built in by the designer, in each of the three axes; and eventuating without any reaction from the pilot. Another condition affecting flight is the aircraft's state of trim - or equilibrium where the net sum of all forces equals zero

The amount of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere has officially surpassed levels seen in the entirety of human history, topping the highest point previously recorded in 800,000 years of data. The distribution of atmospheric water vapor, a significant greenhouse gas, varies across the globe. During the summer and fall of 2005, this visualization shows that most vapor collects at tropical latitudes, particularly over south Asia, where monsoon thunderstorms swept the gas some 2 miles above the land The difference between the normal lapse rate in the atmosphere and the dry and moist adiabatic lapse rates determines the vertical stability of the atmosphere—that is, the tendency of an air particle to return to its original position or to accelerate away from its original position after being given a slight vertical displacement Combining knowledge of stability along with the knowledge of moist processes enables us to understand the behavior of clouds in the atmosphere. The following picture of water vapor released from a cooling tower at the Three-Mile Island nuclear reactor near Harrisburg, PA shows the water vapor quickly condensing to form a cloud

The stability index is determined from measurements of the temperature difference between two atmospheric levels and the dryness index is determined from measurements of the dew-point depression. Due to large variations in elevation across the United States, the index is calculated for three different pressure ranges: low elevation is 950-850mb. Evaluating Atmospheric Static Stability from a Skew-T Diagram. In this lesson, you will learn about various techniques for analyzing an air parcel's stability using skew-T diagrams and parameters. ** Atmospheric Rossby Waves**. According to the National Weather Service, atmospheric Rossby waves form primarily as a result of the Earth's geography.Rossby waves help transfer heat from the tropics toward the poles and cold air toward the tropics in an attempt to return atmosphere to balance Abstract. The structure and stability of Jupiter's atmosphere is analyzed using transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) theory. Utilizing the ammonia distribution derived from microwave radiometer measurements of the Juno orbiter, the latitudinal and vertical distribution of the vertical velocity in the interior of Jupiter's atmosphere is inferred and atmospheric stability. Also tells how to analyze discontinuities, stable layers, and clouds, as well as how to use the plotted diagram to help forecast meteorological phenomena such as aircraft icing and severe convective storms

Buoyantly driven motion is related closely to the stability of the atmospheric mass distribution. The latter, in turn, is shaped by transfers of energy between the Earth's surface, the atmosphere, and deep space. By promoting convection in some regions and suppressing it in others, vertical stability controls a wide range of properties Relating the stability of a large structure to that of a class A rod mark can be accomplished by (1) comparing the depth of the structure's foundation to the required depth for the sleeve (table 2, page 27), and (2) assuring that the structure is a multi-story concrete, masonry, or steel unit. The class A rod mark sleeve is set to a depth below.

Introduction. This module examines the effects of atmospheric stability on wildland fires. The unit is part of the S-290 Intermediate Wildland Fire Behavior course.. In this unit, you will learn about the atmospheric processes related to stable and unstable conditions and their impact on fire behavior PLT070 Interpret information on a Stability Chart PLT071 Interpret information on a Surface Analysis Chart PLT072 Interpret information on a Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) PLT173 Recall atmospheric conditions - measurements / pressure / stability PLT174 Recall autopilot / yaw damper - components / operating principles Surface Prog Charts. Prog Charts are forecasts for surface conditions. These are generated by WPC and rendered for the web site. WPC provides an analysis updated every three hours plus 12 and 24 hour forecasts updated four times a day and a 36 and 48 hour forecast updated twice a day Surface Analysis Charts provide a snapshot for regional/cross-country flights Additionally, they provide a look across the country as to where weather patterns are located and how they have developed Issuance & Validity

- extreme extension or flexion and contibutes to stability only in these positions. (4) The traction force needed to overcome the stabilizing ef- fect of the atmospheric pressure and thus subluxate the adult joint is approximately 200 N, in a child less, proportional to the square of the diameter of the femoral head
- The Holocene period began about 12,000 years ago, at the end of the last ice age, and marks a period of relative stability in climate and atmospheric gas concentrations. During this time, the ice core data reveal that levels of CO 2 and CH 4 in the atmosphere were relatively constant, at about 280 ppmv and 650 ppbv, respectively
- Standard Atmosphere Calculator This calculator is based on the 1976 model of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere (NASA-TM-X-74335) . Two input options are modeled, you can either provide
- The CAPE/CIN chart is either a depiction at current time OR a forecast map that shows regions in which air parcels are either currently unstable or expected to be unstable. The green color means high potential for unstable air. Yellows and reds means there is enormous potential for unstable air
- 100 feet of pipe length. Using Chart A shows that if a more conservative pressure drop were used, the pipe size would increase to 3. Using Chart C shows that if a more aggressive pressure drop were allowed, perhaps a 2 pipe could be used. Using the curves for 10 feet of pipe length, it can be seen because of the shorter length, much smaller pip
- The Penman relationship for potential evaporation is modified to simply include the influence of atmospheric stability on turbulent transport of water vapor. Explicit expressions for the stability-dependent, surface exchange coefficient developed by Louis are used

The dispersion coefficients are function of the atmospheric stability class and the downwind distance x from the air pollutant emission source. The magnitude of the s y and s z dispersion coefficients can be estimated using the equations reported by D. O. Martin (1976) The Change of Concentration Standard Deviations with Distance, J. Air. Meteorologists use the thermodynamic diagram daily to forecast cloud height and atmospheric stability, the latter of which is an indicator of the probability of severe weather. They base their analyses upon the plots of the vertical profiles of air temperature, humidity and wind that are observed by a radiosonde (a balloon-borne instrument.

1. Theory of Slope Stability . In the lecture part of this course we will discuss a variety of methods of analysis of slope stability and instability. It is essential that the engineering geologist be intimately familiar with all of these methods because they provide ways of determining, relatively unambiguously, whether Atmospheric Stability. We have already learned the two basic concepts that are necessary to understand atmospheric stability: *Pressure in the atmosphere decreases with height. *The temperature of a parcel of air decreases as it expands. Land and water surfaces warm and cool at different rates because of their different heat transfer properties

Atmospheric Stability. There is vertical as well as horizontal motion in the atmosphere. Stability is an indication of how rapidly vertical mixing is taking place. The more unstable the atmosphere, the more quickly smoke is lifted and dispersed. The behavior of the fire will also be more intense and unpredictable Here is the annual mean temperature as a function of pressure (=height) and latitude: Figure 1 - Click for a larger image We see that the equator is warmer than the poles and the surface is warmer than the upper troposphere (troposphere = lower atmosphere). No surprises. Here is potential temperature, whatever that is.. Figur

Stability related to temperatures aloft and adiabatic cooling. In each situation, the balloon is filled at sea level with air at 31° C, carried manually to 5,000 feet, and released. In each case, air in the balloon expands and cools to 16° C (at the dry adiabatic rate of 3° C per 1,000 feet) Skew T - In p Chart Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA Height of Standard Atmosphere (km) Pressure (hPa) Temperature (°C)-100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -40-30-20-10 0 10 20 30 40 Assess the stability of each layer of each sounding in terms of these variables. 3. From these soundings, explain why deep convective clouds in the regions of. Adiabatic lapse rate and atmospheric stability Definition. The Lapse Rate is the rate at which temperature changes with height in the Atmosphere.Lapse rate nomenclature is inversely related to the change itself: if the lapse rate is positive, the temperature decreases with height; conversely if negative, the temperature increases with height Aerobraking is a technique for reducing velocity relative to a celestial body through the controlled use of atmospheric drag.An aerocapture is a special form of aerobraking which is used to go from an escape velocity into an orbit instead of adjusting an already stable orbit. Aerobraking is a dangerous and difficult maneuver which involves intentionally placing the craft very close astronomy.